In a participle construction there can be used a present participle or a perfect participle without an auxiliary verb. These type of phrases can always be substituted with a relative clause.
Participle constructions can be devided into two types
1) The participle has a subject, which is not the same as the subject of the main clause.
2) Participles that refer to the subject of the main clause.
The first type of participle construction is called absolute participle. It can be sometimes substituted with a relative clause or sometimes with a subordinate clause, as we will see a bit later. The second type of participle constructions is the one we have seen already in the examples given on the previous pages.